Anatomy questions | Biology homework help

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What are membrane-bound receptor proteins and what is their general function?

What structure acts as the initial template for a protein during protein synthesis?

What is a gene?

What is messenger RNA and where and how is it produced?

Which process must be increased in activity in order for the cancer cells to show high levels of HER-2 messenger RNA?

What are ribosomes and where are they normally located?

How might inhibiting the activity of ribosomes in Lupita’s breast cancer cells help to reduce the production of the HER-2 protein? (Note that this is a hypothetical treatment strategy).


Describe the structure of the plasma membrane of a cell.

What does ‘permeability’ mean in the context of the plasma membrane?

What properties of a molecule would make it unable to pass through a plasma membrane (in other words, the membrane is impermeable to it)?

What properties of a molecule would make it unable to pass through a plasma membrane (in other words, the membrane is impermeable to it)?

Based on your answers to the above questions, what properties must hydrocortisone have in order to allow it to permeate into the epidermal cells of the skin?



What are cilia?

Which cytoskeletal filaments project into the cilia?

What are their functions?

What are the normal functions of cilia?

Why will immotile cilia result in Samantha being unable to get pregnant?

Why will immotile cilia result in Samantha experiencing regular infections of her sinuses and lungs?


What is osmosis?

What is an isotonic solution?

Why, based on the principles of osmosis, would you want to give an isotonic solution to Wendy?

What is a hypotonic solution?

What might happen to the red blood cells in Wendy’s blood if you gave her a hypotonic fluid?


Give two examples of immune system cells that act as phagocytes.

What is phagocytosis?

Explain what happens when a receptor on the phagocyte binds to a bacterium.

What are lysosomes? From where are they derived?

What do lysosomes contain?

How are lysosomes involved in the phagocytosis of a bacterium?


What are mitochondria?

Where are the mitochondria located?

What is the main role of the mitochondria?

What is active transport?

Would a skin cell or a kidney cell that actively transports molecules have the most mitochondria? Explain your answer.

What will happen to a living organism if the main activity of the mitochondria is blocked, such as in cyanide poisoning? Explain your answer.


What are ribosomes?

Where are ribosomes normally found?

What is the role of free ribosomes within the cell?

What is the process of translation? Where does translation occur?

What is the role of the small ribosomal subunit in translation?

What is the role of the large subunit in translation? (Hint: it has three binding sites, what are they for?)

What do you think would be the consequence of having defective or reduced amounts of ribosomes in a cell?


What is meant by the terms haploid and diploid in relation to a human cell?

What therefore is meant by the term triploid and how many chromosomes would be present in a triploid human cell?

By what process are reproductive cells (gametes) produced from diploid adult stem cells?

During which stage of meiosis can chromosomes fail to separate, thus producing a diploid reproductive cell?


What is endocytosis?

What are three different types of endocytosis?

Which type of endocytosis will Felicity’s immune system cells be using to take up bacteria from her wound?

Explain the steps involved in a bacteria being taken up (endocytosed) into a cell of the immune system?

What happens to the bacteria once it has been taken up (endocytosed) into the immune system cell?


Which immune system cells will be responsible for taking up bacteria from Felicity’s wound?

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