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You have to put work cited first and after that you have to write 150 words summary wath two qoutstions market from the essay and after that you have to write your opinion for gust one or two lines. After that you have to write Two questions about that summery no yes or no. You can choose two questions of How, What,Where, Why, When. this is my order. No quesation no and yes. I do not want that. You have to read this essay I will put to you because you have to read this resoerc. You have to put two of Qoutation mark. said “……………………………………..” with page number , and second he said, “…………………………………” with his last name and page number.

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English 2 Annotation 3 Energy Sources

 

Works Cited

Mohanty, Manoranjan. “New Renewable Energy Sources, Green Energy Development and Climate Change.” Management of Environmental Quality 23.3 (2012): 264-74. ProQuest. Web. 29 Sep. 2014.

 

 

New renewable energy sources,

green energy development and

climate change

 

Implications to Pacific Island countries

 

Manoranjan Mohanty

 

Faculty of Business and Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji

 

Abstract

 

Purpose – The aim of the paper is to examine the renewable energy resources for enhancing a green

 

 

energy development in the face of energy crisis and climate change, and to explore the prospects for

“new” renewable energy sources and the green energy initiatives taken in the Pacific Island countries

(PICs).

 

Design/methodology/approach – The data were collated from a wide variety of sources including

 

 

policy documents, road maps, reports, research articles on renewable and green energy sources.

The methodology adopted was primarily a qualitative one based on a “content analysis”.

 

Findings – The findings reveal that increasing emphases have been given recently to “new”

 

 

renewable and green energy sources in the Pacific Island countries as mitigation and adaptation

strategies to fuel crisis and climate change. PICs have taken a wide range of green energy initiatives

including “biomass”, solar, wind and other non-traditional renewable energy sources and bio-fuels

development. Prospects for coconut, copra and palm-oil based bio-fuels do exist in many PICs.

Opportunities for ethanol bio-fuels also exist especially in Fiji.

 

Practical implications – Renewable and green energy sources are of practical implications to PICs.

 

 

There is, however, a greater need for framing sound energy policies by the PICs.

 

Originality/value – The author has brought out clear linkages between climate change and green

 

 

energy development and analyzed the importance of new renewable energy sources, especially in PICs.

The paper has higher policy relevance and it is of great value in the context of sustainable energy

development in PICs.

 

Keywords Climate change, Green energy, Green growth, Bio-fuel, Renewable energy,

 

 

Global warming, Sustainable development, Pacific Island countries

 

Paper type Research paper

 

 

 

1. Introduction

 

The synergy between environment and economy are more pronounced now than ever

before. Energy, environment and climate change are closely intertwined. A holistic and

multi-disciplinary approach is, however, needed to understand the complex linkages

between them. Global fuel-food crises and overdependence on fossil fuels especially on

oil on the one hand, and green house gases (GHGs), global warming and climate

change on the other, are the critical energy sector challenges. These have been

aggravated by an unprecedented demand for energy due to growing population. The

need for energy efficiency (EE) solutions through renewable energy (RE) sources is

now much emphasised. The “green growth” and “green economy” are likely to be

achieved through green energy initiatives and green energy technologies development.

These aim at increasing EE and achieving a low-carbon development, which in turn,

can achieve an eco-efficiency. The “brown” vs “green” energy development debate

draws much of the world attention today in the face of climate change. A “green

energy” development with a “low carbon” and less harmful by-products has emerged

 

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at

 

www.emeraldinsight.com/1477-7835.htm

 

Received 30 March 2011

Revised 19 November 2011

Accepted 6 December 2011

 

Management of Environmental

Quality: An International Journal

Vol. 23 No. 3, 2012

pp. 264-274

 

r Emerald Group Publishing Limited

 

 

1477-7835

DOI 10.1108/14777831211217468

 

264

 

MEQ

23,3

 

as a strategy for an alternative energy development and climate change mitigation.

There have been persistent efforts in increasing EE primarily through “new”

renewable technologies. The prime aim is to enhance the eco-efficiency of economy and

to achieve a “low-carbon” development and environmental sustainability. There has

been gradual shifting of global emphasis from “old” to “new” renewable energy (ORE

to NRE) sources. More focus now is on the use of “biomass”, “bio-fuels”, solar, wind and

other non-traditional RE sources. Development of renewable and green energy

technologies are the pathways in achieving sustainable energy development and thus a

“green” or “smart” economic growth.

The threat of climate change is being aggravated by the intertwined fuel – food

global crises and resulting in more vulnerability especially to the Small Island

Developing States (SIDS) and particularly, the Pacific Islands countries (PICs). These

countries produce almost negligible GHGs but are the most vulnerable to extreme

climate change events and sea-level rise. The low-lying atoll states such as Kiribati,

Marshall Islands, Tokelau and Tuvalu are the immediate victims of such events. The

SIDSs need to become more EE and self-reliant and this can be achieved through RE

or green energy development. There are some instances of successful green energy

development in SIDS, for example, the “green” Coco Palm Resort on Maldives,

efficiency initiatives in Timor, Cuba and Guadeloupe, and a 100 per cent RE run

Spanish Canary Island (Lambrides, 2008). The two SIDS namely, the Maldives and

St Kitts and Nevis are competing with one another to become world’s first carbon

neutral nation (Topping, 2009).

The PICs are heavily dependent on imported oil and the by-products, and

significantly affected by the global fuel crisis. The importation of mineral fuel in Fiji,

for example, was F$1.2 billion in 2008 accounting for 40 per cent of the total import

value (APCTT-UNESCAP, 2010). The power utilities in PICs are not only small but

with a high rate of transmission loss. Some Pacific utilities lose up to 20 per cent or

more of their production due to line losses in the power utility sector (Roper, 2007). The

PICs have vast potential for NRE sources and green energy development, which will

not only reduce oil dependency but also help lowering carbon emissions and improve

the environmental quality.

The questions arise: How to reduce the over dependence on oil? How to achieve

greater EE and a low-carbon development? What are the challenges and prospects

exist for NRE sources in PICs? What are the green energy initiatives undertaken so far

in PICs?

The paper aims at examining the RE resources for enhancing green energy

development in the face of climate change and exploring the prospects of NRE sources,

and green energy initiatives and green energy development in the PICs.

 

2. Energy – development – global warming and climate change linkages

 

Energy, development and climate change are closely linked. A multi-dimensional,

dynamic and complex relationship exists between them. Development – climate

change relationship is linked through energy consumption and waste generation.

Generally speaking, higher the level of development, greater is the energy consumption

(fossil-fuel burning) and in turn, higher is the GHG emissions leading to global

warming and climate change.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has already established that

climate change is real, universal and largely a human – induced phenomenon. Climate

change has been caused by GHG emissions from energy intensive human economic

 

265

 

Renewable

energy sources

 

activities based on fossil-fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) burning. The annual

 

global CO2 emission was 28 million metric tonnes in 2006 (Wikipedia, 2011b). Nearly

 

35 countries produce 90 per cent of world’s CO2 emissions globally, the largest

 

 

share is by the developed countries especially the USA (20 per cent), European Union

(EU) (15 per cent) and Russia (5 per cent) (Wikipedia, 2011b). About 15 per cent of the

 

world population (rich countries) account for 45 per cent of CO2 emissions (UNDP,

 

 

2008).

 

World’s average temperature has increased by approximately 0.61C and two-thirds

 

 

of warming occurred since 1975 (UNDP, 2008). Eleven of 12 warmest years since 1850

occurred between 1995 and 2006 (UNDP, 2008). By the end of the present century it

 

could rise 2 or 31C or even as much as 61C (UNESCAP, 2009).

 

 

World energy consumption is the main determinant of global warming and

consequent climate change and sea-level rise. The world energy consumption patterns

show that fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) accounts for about 87 per cent of global

energy consumption (Wikipedia, 2011b). Oil accounts for about 35 per cent followed by

coal 28 per cent, natural gas 23.5 per cent, hydro-electricity 6 per cent, nuclear 5.8 per

cent and others 0.9 per cent (Wikipedia, 2011b). The world energy consumption per

capita was 1,819 kg of oil equivalent in 2007 (World Bank, 2009). The economic growth

processes especially in PICs are heavily dependent on oil consumption. The main

concerns are to reduce the oil dependence and develop alternative energy sources.

Energy services play a critical role in supporting economic growth and enhancing the

quality of people’s lives. Around 1.6 billion people in the world lack access to such

services (UNDP, 2008). Nearly 40 per cent of world’s population used biomass cook

stoves (REN21, 2010). Poverty is closely linked to low-efficiency “energy carriers” such

as fire wood, dung, charcoal, kerosene, crop waste and other solid biomass products

that diminish the environmental quality (Mohanty, 2005).

 

3. Green energy and green growth strategies

 

There has been a shift in emphasis from a carbon emission reduction strategy to a lowcarbon

development called “green development” that aims to achieve a green growth

and sustainable development. Green energy is the main tool for achieving an efficient

energy. “Green energy” development has emerged as an alternative energy

development strategy and a strategy for climate change mitigation. Green energy is

argued to be non-polluting and more environmental-friendly. Development of RE

sources and green energy technologies are now the pathways in achieving sustainable

“green energy” development. These are seen as “most cost-effective mitigation options”

(UNESCAP, 2009). “Green economy” and “green growth” that aim at a low-carbon or

low-fossil-fuel development will increase EE and in turn, the eco-efficiency of economic

growth. The ecological efficiency can thus be achieved through green energy

development and their linkages are as follows:

 

Green energy-EE-economic efficiency-ecological efficiency

 

 

 

3.1 Hard vs soft energy

 

The debate between “hard energy” and “soft energy” path continues in energy –

development discourse. The traditional approach of a hard energy is based on the

assumption that the mass energy use will lead to better development. This involves

burning of inefficient fossil fuels, nuclear power and other conventional energy

sources. The soft energy path on the other hand is based on the assumption that energy

is a means to social ends and it involves efficient use of energy sources and reliance on

 

266

 

MEQ

23,3

 

“soft energy technologies” such as solar, wind, geothermal and bio-fuels (Wikipedia,

2011a). The renewables and non-conventional energy sources are more efficient and

“soft energy” sources that have potential for achieving “green growth”. Solar energy

technologies such as solar water heater and other residential solar energy technologies

are the soft energy or green energy technologies.

 

4. RE sources

 

The RE is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly thus

perennial sources of energy is now growing in its importance worldwide. The

main advantages of RE sources are that they provide energy security, they are EE,

non-polluting, inexpensive, locally available and more environmental-friendly and also

have potential to reduce oil dependence and help achieving green growth. RE and EE

thus go hand in hand and they are the twin pillars of sustainable energy development.

The renewable/green energy technologies include three generation: first, second

and third. The first-generation technologies include, for example, hydropower,

geothermal and biomass combustion. Second-generation technologies are, e.g. solar

heating and cooling, solar photo-voltaics, wind power and third-generation

technologies are biomass gasification, bio-refinery, geothermal and ocean/marine

energy (tidal, waves, ocean thermal differences) (Wikipedia, 2011a).

In 2008, RE accounted for about 19 per cent of the world’s energy consumption

(Wikipedia, 2011a). An increasing number of countries are shifting their energy

policies in favour of RE. By the early 2010, there were more than 100 countries which

enacted some type of policy target and/or promotion policy related to RE, an increase

over 80 per cent in number from 55 in the early 2005 (REN21, 2010).

 

4.1 NRE sources

 

The ORE sources include the non-conventional energy sources such as solar, wind,

geothermal, nuclear and tidal waves. On the other hand, the NRE sources focus more

on small-hydro projects, solar, biomass and bio-fuels. Biomass, derived from organic

materials, is one of the most important sources of soft and NRE. Nearly 1.7 billion

people rely on traditional biomass in the developing world (UNDP, 2008). Tropical

rainforest and open sea are the chief sources of biomass, accounting for about 31 and

28 per cent of the total global biomass production, respectively (Wikipedia, 2011a).

 

4.1.1 Bio-fuels. Bio-fuels are the energy derived from biomass and organic wastes.

 

 

These are NRE sources. The global production of bio-fuels has increased by 55 per cent

between 2007 and 2009 (Table I).

Bio-fuels are attracting more global attention today than ever before. This is mainly

due to the fact that bio-fuels have significant potential for reducing GHG emissions,

and are potential substitute to fossil fuels. They are also inexpensive source of energy,

 

Bio-fuels Global production (billion litres) (%) growth

2007 2008 2009

Bio-ethanol 50 69 76 52

Bio-diesel 10 15 17 70

Total bio-fuels 60 84 93 55

 

Source: Wikipedia (2011b)

 

 

 

Table I.

 

Global bio-fuel production,

2007-2009

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