Read the case study and then answer questions following in the format stated.
The city of Lyon is located in the central part of France, about two hours south of Paris via TGV. It has a long and rich history as the capital of Gaul in the Roman Empire, a worldwide center of silk production, and a stronghold of the French resistance during World War II. Today, Lyon is the third largest city in France, has a thriving high tech and pharmaceutical industry, and is considered the gastronomical capital of a country known for its cuisine and wine. Unfortunately, with size and industry came pollution, overcrowding, and traffic jams. In the mid-1990s, only 18% of its citizens had easy access to public transportation versus 30% in other towns of equivalent size.
By 2000, Lyon’s city government had constructed an above-ground light rail system to complement theexisting underground metro and bus network in an effort to extend public transportation to more people. However, the outdoor station’s stops needed shelters to protect waiting passengers from the wind, rain, and snow. In an innovative program, the marketing and advertising firm, JCDecaux, in cooperation with Lyon’s development office, created “street furniture” to house the benches, ticket vending machines, route maps, and time tables. JCDecaux constructed and maintained the sites in exchange for the revenue from advertisements placed on the shelters. The program was a win-win for both organizations.
The success of the cooperative tram and bus shelter project, and the city’s continued interest in easing pollution and traffic jams in the commercial center of the city, led them to seek out additional change. They asked JC Decaux for input. JCDecaux had been testing the idea of a self-service bicycle program inVienna, Austria and Córdobo and Gijon, Spain and they proposed adopting and implementing a “bike exchange” network in and around Lyon in mid-2002. For Lyon and its neighboring city of Villeurbanne, it was a risky and large-scale proposal.
The vision—common now in many European cities, but completely novel at the time—was that commuters and pedestrians could pick up a bicycle at installations around the city—near metro stops, businesses, or large public venues—and use it to shop, go to work, or simply get from one part of town to the other more conveniently than a car or the bus, metro, or light-rail system. The original idea was that the bike could be used for free for less than an hour and at very low prices if used for longer periods. (To get a picture of the system and its different parts today, go to www.velov.grandlyon.com.) “It is our intent to turn bicycles into a mode of daily travel for workers in the city,” said one government official.
An initial budget of €2 million per year was estimated to invest in bikes, registration systems, installations, and support operations until about 2007. To support the project, the city also envisioned construction or remodeling of several parking garages to encourage people to park their cars on the outskirts of town and then pick up a bike to finish the commute. Two parking garages in the downtown area had already begun offering free bicycles for those who parked their vehicle there.
The project—named Vélo V—was presented by the city’s mayor before the second annual “day without a car” festival. Vélo V would be managed by JCDecaux. They would own and maintain the bikes and finance operations through advertising receipts. The head of the city’s development function suggested that it was a bold attempt to “effect a radical change in the philosophy” of the urban community. At the time, less than 3% of the people in Lyon used a bicycle, against 10% in Strasbourg and other cities. The proposal was supported by Les Verts, France’s Green political party, but the president of the local nongovernmental transportation union was upset that there had been little dialogue with various concerned organizations.
The goal was to launch a 24 hours/day operation in May 2005 with 1,200 bicycles in 120 stations. According to a JCDecaux regional manager, they expected 2,000 bikes in 180 stations by October and projected 3,000 bikes in 2006 and 4,000 bikes in 2007.
you must have a minimum of 3 scholarly sources (peer-reviewed journal articles). Please ensure that you follow standard APA formatting. Your paper must have a title page and a reference page. You must have a minimum of five (5) in-text citations.
At 111papers.com, we value all our customers, and for that, always strive to ensure that we deliver the best top-quality content that we can. All the processes, from writing, formatting, editing, and submission is 100% original and detail-oriented. With us, you are, therefore, always guaranteed quality work by certified and experienced writing professionals. We take pride in the university homework help services that we provide our customers.
As the best homework help service in the world, 111 Papers ensures that all customers are completely satisfied with the finished product before disbursing payment. You are not obligated to pay for the final product if you aren’t 100% satisfied with the paper. We also provide a money-back guarantee if you don’t feel that your paper was written to your satisfaction. This guarantee is totally transparent and follows all the terms and conditions set by the company.Read more
All products that we deliver are guaranteed to be 100% original. We check for unoriginality on all orders delivered by our writers using the most advanced anti-plagiarism programs in the market. We, therefore, guarantee that all products that we submit to you are 100% original. We have a zero-tolerance policy for copied content. Thanks to our strict no plagiarized work rule, you can submit your homework to your professor without worrying.Read more
TThis is one of the most cherished courtesy services that we provide to help ensure that our customers are completely satisfied with our finished products. Delivering the best final product to our customers takes multiple inputs. 111papers.com prides itself on delivering the best university homework help services in the writing industry. And, in part, our free revision policy is how we do it. What’s more, all our revisions are 100% free without any strings attached.Read more
Client privacy is important to use. We know and understand just how important customers value their privacy and always want to safeguard their personal information. Thus, all the information that you share with us will always remain in safe custody. We will never disclose your personal information to any third party or sell your details to anyone. 111 Papers uses the most sophisticated, top-of-the-line security programs to ensure that our customers’ information is safe and secured.Read more
Placing your order with us means that you agree with the homework help service we provide. We, in turn, will endear to ensure that we do everything we can to deliver the most comprehensive finished product as per your requirements. We will also count on your cooperation to help us deliver on this mandate. Yes, we also need you to ensure that you have the highest-quality paper.Read more