Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a severe, potentially deadly infection spread by certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). Globally, 2.5 billion people live in areas where dengue viruses can be transmitted. In the Philippines, Hemorrhagic fever was first reported in 1953. In 1958, it became a notifiable disease in the country and was later reclassified as Dengue hemorrhagic fever.
Dengue is a primary disease in the tropical and subtropical region. It is caused by one of four different but related viruses. It is spread by the bite of mosquitoes, most commonly the mosquito Aedes aegypti.
It is characterized by increased vascular permeability, hypovolemia and abnormal blood clotting mechanisms. WHO case definition for DHF: 1) fever or history of recent fever, 2) thrombocytopenia (platelet count equal to or less than 100 x 10 /cu mm),
3) hemorrhagic manifestations such as petechiae or overt bleeding phenomena, and
4) evidence of plasma leakage due to increase vascular permeability.
Illness is biphasic; it begins abruptly with fever, and in children, with mild upper respiratory complaints often anorexia, facial flush and mild GI disturbances. Coincident with defervescence and decreasing platelet count, the patient’s condition suddenly worsens, with marked weakness, severe restlessness, facial pallor and often diaphoresis, severe abdominal pain and circumoral cyanosis. GI hemorrhage is an ominous prognostic sign that usually follows a prolonged period of shock.
Dengue occurrence is sporadic throughout the year. Epidemic usually occurs during the rainy seasons June November. Peak months are September and October. It occurs wherever vector mosquito exists. Currently vector control is the available method for the dengue and DHF prevention and control but research on dengue vaccines for public health use is in process.
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