TO REPLY WITH A COMMENT TO EACH POST WITH TWO REFERENCE PER POST APA WITH CITATION ABOVE 2013. THE SECOND POST WILL BE GIVING TOMORROW.
The most important people in the client’s life that could provide valuable feedback are her mother, grandmother, and teacher because they have the most contact with the client. The grandmother is important to interview as she may have different experiences with the client while in her care. The grandmother can also be asked about the mother’s behaviors and temperament during her childhood and adolescent years, especially considering the mother is exhibiting obvious symptoms of ADHD in her adult life. Studies have shown a mean heritability rate of 75% in family studies of behavioral disorders (Wilens & Spencer, 2010). The client’s teacher can provide a overview on any specific triggers preceding her tantrums and outbursts in class, and relationships with peers. The mother should be asked about the severity of the client’s behavior and tantrums at home, relationship with sister, and level of disobedience as these assessments may indicate progression into more severe behavioral disorders suggesting prompt attention (Committee to Evaluate the Supplemental Security Income Disability Program for Children with Mental Disorders, 2015).
Physical Exams and Diagnostic Tests
When diagnosing ADHD and other DBDs, a thorough physical evaluations is needed to rule out medical causes. A structural MRI could document diffuse abnormalities in children with ADHD. A study found, individuals with ADHD may have smaller total cerebrum, cerebellum, and four cerebral lobes that do not change over time; in adults, imaging studies have shown smaller anterior cingulate cortex, thought to be the region that regulates ability to focus on tasks and choose between options, and smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which controls memory and ability to process new information (Wilens & Spencer, 2010). EEG should also be considered as one study found EEG’s show more Beta activity than Theta/Alpha activity in children medication responders compared to non-medication responders, strongly suggesting a biological correlation to the behaviors in ADHD (Hamed et al., 2015). Blood chemistry, thyroid levels, and ferritin levels have also been linked to the diagnosis of ADHD.
Dexedrine Spansule 5mg daily is sustained-release amphetamine used to treat adults and children age 6 years and older with ADHD. The drug has up to an 8-hour duration of clinical action, making its use preferable over IR formulations (Stahl, 2014b). Most stimulants are highly and equally efficacious hence the label as first-line treatment for ADHD. The side effect profile consists of cardiovascular, CNS, and hormonal effects requiring pre-assessment and monitoring throughout therapy. Also, the once a day dosing is beneficial to children because it eliminates the interruption of the school day to take noon dose, maintains confidentiality, and increases likelihood of compliance (Shier, Reichenbacher, Ghuman, H., & Ghuman, J., 2013). Compared to Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used to treat ADHD in adults and children over the age of 6, amphetamines have a more robust response (Shier et al., 2013). Atomoxetine carries the FDA warning for the potential to increase suicidal ideation children and adolescents and is metabolized through the CYP2D6 pathway in which a small percentage of the Caucasian population are poor metabolizers, therefore dose adjustments may be required (Brown et al., 2018).
Recommendations for treatment usually accompany the diagnosis of ADHD and have since been a source of controversy. Although stimulant use to treat ADHD shows effectiveness in 65-75% of children after their first trial of use, the potentially dangerous side effects contribute to the indecisiveness of parents and children which affects treatment and compliance (Hamed et al., 2015). Approaching the diagnosis and suggested treatment should be done tactfully, as many parents have negative information and perceptions of the ADHD diagnosis. As the practitioner, it is imperative that the challenges associated with assessing and treated ADHD are known. The concerted effort to successfully treat children with ADHD involves family, caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals alike.
Brown, K., Samuel, S., & Patel, D. (2018). Pharmacological management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: A review for practitioners. Translational Pediatrics, 7(1): 36-47. doi: 10.21037/tp.2017.08.02.
Committee to Evaluate the Supplemental Security Income Disability Program for Children with Mental Disorders (2015). Mental disorders and disabilities among low-income children. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US).
Hamed, A., Kauer, A., & Stevens, H. (2015). Why the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder matters. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 6: 168. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00168.
Shier, A., Reichenbacher, T., Ghuman, H., & Ghuman, J. (2013). Pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Clinical strategies. Journal of Central Nervous System Disease, 5: 1-17. doi: 10.4137/JCNSD.S6691.
Stahl, S. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Cambridge University Press.
Wilens, T. & Spencer, T. (2010). Understanding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder from childhood to adulthood. Postgraduate Medicine, 122(5): 97-109. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2010.09.2206.
At 111papers.com, we value all our customers, and for that, always strive to ensure that we deliver the best top-quality content that we can. All the processes, from writing, formatting, editing, and submission is 100% original and detail-oriented. With us, you are, therefore, always guaranteed quality work by certified and experienced writing professionals. We take pride in the university homework help services that we provide our customers.
As the best homework help service in the world, 111 Papers ensures that all customers are completely satisfied with the finished product before disbursing payment. You are not obligated to pay for the final product if you aren’t 100% satisfied with the paper. We also provide a money-back guarantee if you don’t feel that your paper was written to your satisfaction. This guarantee is totally transparent and follows all the terms and conditions set by the company.Read more
All products that we deliver are guaranteed to be 100% original. We check for unoriginality on all orders delivered by our writers using the most advanced anti-plagiarism programs in the market. We, therefore, guarantee that all products that we submit to you are 100% original. We have a zero-tolerance policy for copied content. Thanks to our strict no plagiarized work rule, you can submit your homework to your professor without worrying.Read more
TThis is one of the most cherished courtesy services that we provide to help ensure that our customers are completely satisfied with our finished products. Delivering the best final product to our customers takes multiple inputs. 111papers.com prides itself on delivering the best university homework help services in the writing industry. And, in part, our free revision policy is how we do it. What’s more, all our revisions are 100% free without any strings attached.Read more
Client privacy is important to use. We know and understand just how important customers value their privacy and always want to safeguard their personal information. Thus, all the information that you share with us will always remain in safe custody. We will never disclose your personal information to any third party or sell your details to anyone. 111 Papers uses the most sophisticated, top-of-the-line security programs to ensure that our customers’ information is safe and secured.Read more
Placing your order with us means that you agree with the homework help service we provide. We, in turn, will endear to ensure that we do everything we can to deliver the most comprehensive finished product as per your requirements. We will also count on your cooperation to help us deliver on this mandate. Yes, we also need you to ensure that you have the highest-quality paper.Read more