Philo final | Literature homework help

Philosophy 105 Exam 2.  Critical Reasoning

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Definitions:  Please define and give an example of each of the following terms (30 pts).



1)     Affirming the Consequent

2)     Division

3)     Contraposition.

4)     Truth Table

5)     Truth functional symbol (or operator).

6)     False dilemma

7)     Appeal to Ignorance

8)     Begging the question

9)     Square of opposition

10) Contradictory



Identify the fallacies (25 pts).


  1. “What you aren’t a Cornhuskers fan?  Listen, around here everybody is for the Huskers!  This is Nebraska!”


  1. “Aw c’mon Jake, let’s go hang out at Dave’s.  Don’t worry about your parents; they’ll get over it.  You know the one thing I really like about you is that you don’t let your parents tell you what to do.”


  1. Imagine yourself alone beside your broken-down car at the side of a country road in the middle of the night.  Few pass by and no one stops to help Don’t get caught like that—don’t get caught without your Polytech cellular phone!


  1. You:  Look at this.  It says here that white males still earn a lot more than underrepresented groups and women for doing the same job.  Your friend:  Yeah, right.  Written by some woman no doubt.


  1. I believe that Tim is telling the truth about his brother because he just would not lie about such a thing.



Supply a claim to turn the following into valid arguments (10 pts).


  1. Jesse Ventura, the former Governor of Minnesota, was a professional wrestler.  He couldn’t have been a very effective governor.


  1. Half the people in the front row believe in God.  Therefore, half the class believes in God.



Put into standard form (5 pts).


  1. Aristotle was a logician.




Use venn diagrams to determine whether these are valid.  Please show your work. (10 pts). 


  1. All sound arguments are valid.

Some valid arguments are not interesting arguments


            All sound arguments are not interesting arguments.



2.  Only systems with removable disks can give you unlimited storage capacity of a practical sort.  Standard hard drives never have removable disks, so they can’t give you practical, unlimited storage capacity.


Construct Truth Tables (short or long) to determine which of the following are valid.


1. Pv(Q->R)                2. Lv~J

Q&~R                             R->J

—                                    —-

~P                                    L->~R


Extra credit:




Q->L                      (P&S)v(T->R)

P->M                      ~(S&P)

RvP                                    —–

R->(Q&S)              T->R




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