Unit4disc1peer response due saturday november 3


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Response Guidelines for both Discussions 1 and 2

Respond to at least two other learners by asking questions and adding comments that expand and deepen the conversation. Your responses are expected to demonstrate your ability to integrate the ideas presented throughout the unit, including assigned readings, media presentations, and independent investigations. Responses should be substantive in nature and reference theoretical, empirical, or professional literature that supports your views and writings. Please remember to be respectful of the ideas and experiences of others. 

Peer1 Jewell K

Policy formation within the government setting exists to seek other possibilities of ideas to accommodate requests (Simon, 2018). This however is not an easy task as agenda issues within the government are crucial and due to the diversity of modern or classic liberals there are can issues that make goal defining problematic (Simon, 2018). Key actors for the government policies are leglislators, executive and agency administrators (Ryser, n.d.).  It is interesting as the government has policy within their hands, however the citizens in society still play a role, in that the disagreement of those issues decide on these individuals position in office based on their political party and voting polls. According to Simon, (2018), policy information theorizes that geographical areas that have large numbers of graduates are more likely to succeed in social stratification. This stands out to me as human services volunteer for St. Louis, MO and seeing the consistent downfall of the North side area primarily due to lack of resources for education, jobs, and public aid. In contrast to this statement, St. Clair county residents have a large educational completion percentage for adults and in retrospect a great deal of jobs and wealth to be obtained exist (DataUSA, n.d.) Prior to the urgency of policies one must realize that policies without resources in impovershed areas will not create stability and a constant need for updates and reevaluation for failure to meet those goals will consistently be a topic of interest.

Simon, C. A. (2018). Public policy: Preferences and outcomes (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

DataUSA. (n.d.). Illinois. Retrieved November 1, 2018, from https://datausa.io/profile/geo/illinois/sims

Ryser, R (n.d.). Elements of a Standard Policy Statement. Retrieved from the Community Tool Box. (n.d.). 11. Influencing policy development. Retrieved from http://ctb.ku.edu/en/influencing-policy-development

Peer2 Stephanie B

Policy goal definition is challenging for policymakers, since there is opposing views of what is normative, where some actors may feel that government should assist where others may oppose (Simon, 2018). Policies that are usually accepted are issues that are out of human control, such as acts of human nature, or public health concerns which effect everyone ,such as communicable diseases. Once this policy goal has been defined then the process of a resolution and alternatives begin. The primary concern of public policy is to explore how this goal will be achieved in relation to financial costs. 

Major Actors  in policy formation may include governing directors, leaders, staff, organizational committees, and interest groups and think tanks (Ryser, n.d). Many actors are essential in policy formation. Interests groups work to shape presidential policy formation and influence policy formation through the courts. The president is involved in policy formation. He has the power to submit a proposed yearly budget and aso a large say in policy formation. The courts play a role in determining whether to confirm or negate the constitutionality of policies. Public bureaucracies and international influences, such as the Bureau of Land Management all can play a role in change as individuals retire and are replaced with new employees.  

Policy group theory, such as the policy diffusion model helps to understand how policy ideas and strategies can spread throughout the world, through a macro level understanding (Simon, 2017). Within this model, there is an awareness of what is happening in other neighborhoods that is working, and adopting these policies for another geographical area. This theory is relevant to adopting what is showing success in other places. The  multiple stream policy, although has its benefits, can also prove to have its challenges when all parties disagree as to what is a pressing issue.


Ryser, R (n.d.). Elements of a Standard Policy Statement. Retrieved from the Community Tool Box. (n.d.). 11. Influencing policy development. Retrieved from http://ctb.ku.edu/en/influencing-policy-development

Simon, C. A. (2018). Public policy: Preferences and outcomes (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge

Unit4Disc2Peer Response

Peer1 Shannon P

In particular, from the human services perspective, how would policy be formulated on the specific social change problem in the government example Simon offers in Chapter 6 of Public Policy?

In the texts example of h city wanting to clean up air pollution problems they chose to use the goal that can be attained most quickly by limiting the air pollution produced by city buses the policy makers would have go through the policy formation process to determine which will be the most cost effective solution to the problem (Simon, 2017). This issue would be considered an intentional social change, which is the most common and the policy makers would also need to determine how any change to the public transportation would affect the public and ensure that they are operating in a social justice manner (Ryser, 2018). Policy formation is a detailed process of using specific methods to define a policy goal that shows a need that is accepted by the majority as a problem that is beyond the control of one or a few individuals which is done by exploring alternatives to achieve said goal, then choosing an appropriate policy solution, as well as a plan for implementation of the policy (Simon, 2017). Once the policy goal is defined they policy makers can then begin exploring policy alternatives which is usually conducted by policy analysts through qualitative or quantitative methods which helps to explore various ranges of potential policy benefit in relation to the uniform comparison of alternatives based on various economic commitment levels (Simon, 2017).  

The principal actors for this example would be the state and city level government officials, human service representative such as the community activist and social worker, law enforcement liaison as well as the program managers, program service personnel and the program delivery personnel for non-profit/for-profit and government agencies (Ryser, Elements of a Standard Policy Statement, 2018). This would be major social change, depending of the alternative goal selected because this could adversely effect employment rates and local businesses who receive a lot of their businesses from patrons that utilize public transportation, for instance if they chose to replace the older buses with new ones that posed less pollution they would have to consider the cost and determine if this would result in less bus stops overall to handle the financial commitment (Simon, 2017). Interests groups that are well established will employ policy analysts because they are more likely to have an issue that is relevant to their needs/problems through the formation process mainly because the policy analysts have a comprehensive understanding of government data and they are also able to offer testimony by presenting pre-drafted legislative bills along with detailed prospective costs and benefits of policy alternatives that are attractive (Simon, 2017). Interests groups would be relevant to the issue the city is having with the air pollution because they are able to attend and actively participate in the policy making process by providing necessary expertise and the required motivation as well as the appropriate analysis to show the benefits of each alternative goal (Simon, 2017).


Ryser, R. (2018, October 9). Elements of a Standard Policy Statement. Retrieved from Capella University: http://media.capella.edu/CourseMedia/HMSV5402/PublicPolicyToolbox/documents/HMSV5402%20Elements%20of%20a%20Standard%20Policy.pdf

Ryser, R. (2018, October 08). Understanding Social Change as a Human Service Professional: What is Social Change. Retrieved from Capella University: http://media.capella.edu/CourseMedia/HMSV5402/PublicPolicyToolbox/documents/HMSV5402%20Social%20Change%20and%20Human%20Services%20Professionals.pdf

Simon, C. A. (2017). Public Policy: Preferences and Outcomes 3rd Edition. New York: Routledge.

Peer2 Michael R

Policy formation is the detailed process of using normative and empirical methods to define a policy goal, explore alternatives to achieve the goal, and then choose a preferred policy solution. Defining, exploring, choosing, planning—the basic elements of policy formation. The issue of defining a policy goal is often highly normative. A major hurdle in defining a policy problem is developing a convincing argument that public policy is needed. Problems must be generally accepted as being beyond the control of any individual (Simon, 2017). 

Departments and agencies within public bureaucracy are often staffed by individuals with particular policy interests. It is not surprising to find that they are often advocates for a particular policy direction. Bureaucrats may intentionally or inadvertently imprint policy with their personal values. While bureaucrats are often careerists, there are changing patterns of employment. Individuals serving in key roles in bureaucratic policy formation retire, replaced by individuals with different values, beliefs, and opinions. Personnel changes may lead to differences in policy formation (Simon, 2017). The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) are two examples of how personnel changes impacted agency rules and procedures. In the early twentieth century, both agencies were driven largely by the traditional interests of logging, livestock grazing, and mining. Public bureaucrats who operated these agencies created a system of rules that made the public lands accessible to their clientele. Building on statutory changes such as the Wilderness Act of 1964, bureaucrats crafted administrative rules and regulations, guided by new values and scientific evidence, advancing efforts at environmental protection (Simon, 2017). 

Simon, Christopher A. Public Policy, 3rd Edition. Routledge, 20170815. VitalBook file.

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