Writing the body of the research paper

Part 1: Writing the Body of the Research Paper
Chapter 23, Section 23b, of Strategies for Writing Successful Research Papers

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Each paragraph of the body of your research paper should be a cohesive unit. It should be tight, but developed. It should serve a function, and its purpose should always be to bolster the thesis. Therefore, you should use the following order for each paragraph in the body:

a.Topic sentence: This sentence summarizes the entire paragraph in one strong, well-written sentence, and it directly supports the thesis statement.
b.Explanation of topic sentence (1-2 sentences): Often times there is more to be said about the topic sentence, more explanation that is necessary in order for it to be a clear idea, so there are usually a few sentences that follow the topic sentence that explicate the idea more for the reader. These sentences not only “unpack” the topic sentence, but they also anticipate the evidence that will be used to support the topic sentence, usually indirectly.
c.Introduction to evidence (1-2 sentences): No piece of evidence (quotation, example, paraphrase, etc.) should be dropped into a paragraph without first introducing it. An introduction might include the title of the source, the author, and/or a short description of the source/author’s credentials. In this way, no evidence is presented without a context because it is this context that makes the evidence meaningful.

Evidence: The evidence that you present backs up your topic sentence and, by extension, supports your thesis statement. The evidence that you supply can be a number of things: a quotation from a source; a reasonable, illustrative example; a statistic; commentary from an interview; etc.
e. Explanation of evidence: No piece of evidence stands on its own or is convincing on its own. Although it may seem to draw a direct line to your topic sentence to support it, often the reader needs you to make the connection between the two. Further, the general rule is that for each sentence of quoted material, your explanation should be just as long, so if you include a block quotation, the block quotation should be met with an equally long explanation.
f. Transition (1-2 sentences): Transitions are essential for research papers because body paragraphs, especially, are written as units, and it is the transitions that allow for these units to be linked together. Take a look at the list of transitional expressions on pp. 44-45 in The Little, Brown Compact Handbook with Exercises.

Part 2: Revision: How to Re-envision Your Research Paper Drafts
Chapter 24, Sections 24a and 24c-24d, of Strategies for Writing Successful Research Papers
Although the final copy of your Research Paper is not due until Unit VIII, it is a good idea to start thinking about revisions now. Revisions are something that you can do throughout the writing process. Further, it is always advisable to begin writing with your paper formatted so that you do not encounter undue stress trying to format the paper last minute.
On pages 531-532 of Strategies for Writing Successful Research Papers, there are grouped lists under each section of the paper, giving you an idea of what you might want to consider when revising the introduction, body, and conclusion. In addition, you will see a helpful box at the top of page 532 (Checklist: “Global Revision”) that gives you an idea of how one might perform a global revision of a paper.
Part 3: Unit Grammar Lesson: Other Punctuation Marks and Voice
Chapters 28, Sections 28a-28b, and 44, Sections 44a-44e, of The Little, Brown Compact Handbook with Exercises
Below is the draft I have which I got only 62out of 100 for .
Most people flick on the light switch, start their car or talk on their cell phone without thinking about the power that is being used within each of those devices to make them work. There can be a disconnect between the thoughts of using an electronic device and how that energy is being produced to power the device. Energy is a topic that is receiving a lot of attention as people are being to realize that the energy sources that are utilized the most are being depleted and are not replenishing quick enough for future generations. These non-renewable resources are what provide the bulk of the energy needs today. “The future global economy is likely to consume ever more energy, especially with the rising energy demand of developing countries… [The] tremendous risk of climate change associated with the use of fossil fuels makes supplying this energy increasingly difficult” (“The Energy Crisis and Climate Change”, n.d., para.1). One of the solutions to replacing non-renewable energy as the main source for the world’s energy is non-renewable resources. Renewable energy sources include wind, solar, water, and geothermal which can be combined together in communities to help to reduce the demand for non-renewable energy sources. There are some blocks to renewable resources being put into operation that cause individuals to worry over switching from non-renewable to renewable. Although there are a few problems with renewable energy sources, it is an alternative that should be explored further because they are safer for the environment and available for future generations.
There is a great deal of information available on renewable and non-renewable energy resources because this is a hot topic that has been debated for years now. The selection basis for this research involved finding credible sources speaking about the different types of energy available. The literature covers the different types of non-renewable and renewable energy sources that are in use today along with their benefits and disadvantages. The main consensus of the literature supports the thesis in that nonrenewable energy resources has more disadvantages than renewable energy resources, and that a switch should be made towards weaning the dependence on nonrenewable energy resources.
I. Probably the biggest issue with energy today is that the world is dependent on using nonrenewable resources, which will eventually run out as energy demands will continue to increase rather than decrease, but there are energy sources available that are renewable.
A. According to Chiras (2013), “On average, they receive about 85% of their energy from fossil fuels, 5% from nuclear power, a type of nonrenewable energy, and 10% from renewable such as solar and wind energy, although the renewable energy contribution is growing rapidly in many countries” (p. 277).
1. Non-renewable energy resources are being used quicker than they can be replenished due to modern day reliance on energy from the myriad of technological devices used today from televisions to iPhones.
2. Technology has increased the dependence that many individuals have on energy, but technology can also help to improve the type of alternative renewable energy sources that exist.
B. There are many different types of alternative renewable energy sources that can be used effectively with today’s technology.
1. “Renewable energy technologies are those that harness energy from an inexhaustible source. Such sources include the sun, wind, falling water, waves, tides, biomass, or heat generated beneath the surface of the Earth” (Smith and Taylor, 2008, p. 2).
2. The renewable energy sources that are available today do not need to be used alone, but can be combined in junction with each other to achieve the energy needs of the communities that start using them.
III. There are some problems with alternative renewable energy sources that make people think that they are too hard to implement to replace the dependence on nonrenewable sources, but the benefits can help to overcome this resistance.
A. Alternative renewable energy sources do pose some problems to getting them implemented over the current regime of non-renewable energy sources.
1. One of the first problems is a lack of information as most people are unaware of the different types of renewable energy sources available in comparison to the better known non-renewable energy sources.
2. The next problem is money as it is can expensive to replace the current energy systems with their renewable counterparts.
3. Another problem is that although mostly safer for the environment, some renewable energy sources can pose risks for the environment.
4. The final problem is resistance to change as the public may be scared of changing to something that is not as proven as non-renewable energy sources, and the corporations that create non-renewable energy sources may be resistant to changing the way that they do business.
B. These problems are more than balanced by the positives that come from renewable energy, and could be overcome by proper management.
1. These positives are summed by the Natural Resources Defense Council’s article, in that using alternative renewable energy sources “… make our families healthier, more secure, and more prosperous by improving our air quality, reducing our reliance on fossil fuels, curbing global warming, adding good jobs to the economy and – when they’re properly sited – protecting environmental values…” (“What is Renewable Energy”, n.d., para. 1).
2. Renewable energy resources can help to make the planet a better place to live now, help future generations, and make secure the knowledge that the energy needs of the future will be met.
IV. In conclusion, the problems that exist from implementing alternative renewable energy resources to eventually overcome the dependence on nonrenewable energy are small in comparison to the problems that exist from staying dependent on nonrenewable energy.
A. “Fossil fuels — coal, oil, and natural gas — do substantially more harm than renewable energy sources by most measures, including air and water pollution, damage to public health, wildlife and habitat loss, water use, land use, and global warming emissions” (“Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies”, 2013, para. 1).
B. It just makes more sense to find ways to solve the problems with renewable energy today rather than putting it off until the global population is desperate for something to replace the dwindling nonrenewable energy resources.

References
Chiras, D. D. (2013). Environmental science (9th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.
Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies. (2013, March 5). Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/renewable-energy/environmental-impacts-of.html
Smith, Z. A., & Taylor, K. D. (2008). Renewable and alternative energy resources: a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.
The Energy Crisis and Climate Change. (n.d.). Global Economic Symposium. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.global-economic-symposium.org/knowledgebase/the-global-environment/the-energy-crisis-and-climate-change/proposals/the-energy-crisis-and-climate-change
What is Renewable Energy?. (n.d.). Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nrdc.org/energy/renewables/

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